A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation with an EPA-rich or DHA-rich oil on a range of immune outcomes representing key functions of human neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in healthy humans.
42 healthy subjects
Supplementation with either placebo (olive oil), EPA (4.7 g/d), or DHA (4.9 g/d) for 4 wk.
Blood samples were taken before and after supplementat- ion.
It was found that supplementation with DHA suppresses T lymphocyte activation, as assessed by expression of CD69. EPA alone does not, therefore, influence CD69 expression.
Kew S, Mesa MD, Tricon S, et al. Effects of oils rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on immune cell composition and function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 ;79(4):674-81.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel study was conducted by Kelley, et al. to assess the effects of DHA supplementation on the concentrations of apoproteins, large, medium and small VLDL, LDL, and HDL particles and the mean diameters of these particles in fasting and postprandial plasma.
4 hypertriglyceridemic patients aged 39-66 years
Patients received no supplements for the first 8 days and then received either 7.5 g DHA oil/day (3 g DHA/day) obtained from microalgae Crypthecodinium cohinii or 7.5 g olive oil (placebo group) for the last 90 days
The results of this study demonstrated that Dietary ω-3 fatty acids have potentially protective role against cardiovascular diseases
DHA supplementation reduced the concentrations of atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins and increased concentrations of cardio-protective lipoproteins
Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension. 1999;34(2):253-260
It is found that the depressive symptoms may augment the risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. Consumption of n-3 PUFA may relieve both depression and cognitive decline.
The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFAs on depressive symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and cognition in elderly people with MCI.
Double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
50 people aged >65 years with MCI were enrolled into the study.
|Groups||Intervention||Number of subjects (n=)|
|Rich in DHA||1.55g DHA + 0.40 g EPA/day||18|
|Rich in EPA||1.67g EPA + 0.16g DHA/day||17|
|Linoleic Acid(LA)||2.2 LA g/day||15|
DHA supplementation benefited mental health in older people with MCI
Omega-3 PUFAs supplement significantly reduced the depressive symptoms and altered the risk of progression to dementia.
Sinn N, Milte CM, Street SJ, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA vs. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.Br J Nutr. 2012;107(11):1682=169
Many studies have demonstrated that DHA plays an important role in brain development. Decreased level of plasma DHA is associated with cognitive decline in healthy elderly people and in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study was conducted to assess the potential benefits of DHA supplementation on improving cognitive functions in individuals with age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, CANTAB
A total of 485 male or female subjects aged ≥55 years with a subjective memory complaint and with Mini-Mental State Examination >26 and a Logical Memory (Wechsler Memory Scale III) baseline score ≥1
standard deviation below younger adults were enrolled.
900 mg/d DHA, provided as (3) soft-gelatin capsules, each containing 300 mg DHA from algal triglyceride oil.
24 week of supplementation with 900 mg/d DHA resulted in improved learning and memory function in age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) patients
DHA is a beneficial supplement that supports cognitive health with aging.
Yurko-Mauro K, McCarthy D, Rom D, et al. Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement. 2010s; 6(6):456-64
This study was conducted to examine whether intake ofomega-3 fatty acid has any affect on the incidence of age-related maculardegeneration (AMD) in women.
38,022 womencompleted the food-frequency questionnaire and were not having AMD.
Outcome measure: Incident AMD responsible for areduction in best corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based onself-report confirmed by medical record review.
Duration of gestation increased significantly when docosahexaenoic acid intake was increased during the last trimester of pregnancy.
The increase in gestation was similar to that of previously reported interventions with much larger amounts of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D et al. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101(3):469-479..